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阅读理解:

Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A. D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguished the empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scholarship had advanced.

To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change.

The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.

No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first. Economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor. The beginning of the empire’s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion.

1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the text?

[A] The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.

[B] The economic, cultural, and military revival in the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revival in Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens.

[C] After 810 Byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453.

[D] The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the generally accepted sequence of progress.

2. It can be inferred from the text that the Byzantine Empire sustained significant territorial losses

[A] in 600.

[B] during the seventh century.

[C] a century after the cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire had been lost.

[D] soon after the revival of Byzantine learning.

3. In the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to

[A] suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium accords with this model.

[B] set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium.

[C] cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about Byzantium.

[D] suggest that Byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists.

4. Which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began?

[A] The Byzantine military revival of the 860’s led to economic and cultural advances.

[B] The Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.

[C] The Byzantine economic recovery began in the 900’s.

[D] The revival of Byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century.

5. According to the author, “The common explanation” (line 1, paragraph 3) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is

[A] revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the Byzantine Empire.

[B] reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress.

[C] not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival.

[D] equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient Greece and Rome.

[答案与考点解析]

1. 【答案】D

【考点解析】这是一道中心主旨题。本文的中心主旨句在尾段的倒数第二句。如果考生能够识别出本文的中心主旨句,就会迅速地推导出本题的正确答案D。考生在解题时应首先寻找出全文的中心主旨句。

2. 【答案】B

【考点解析】这是一道细节推导题。从题干中的“territorial losses”可迅速确定本题答案信息的来源在第一段的第二句。通过仔细阅读本句的内容并且进行深入的推导就可得出本题的正确选项B。考生在解题时应该善于依据原文的内容进行深入地推导。

3. 【答案】B

【考点解析】本题是一道段落之间的关系题型。旨在考察学生的语言基本功,尤其是考察学生对段落之间相互关系理解和掌握的能力,这是一道比较难的题。本文第三段主要向我们介绍一种“common explanation”(通常的解释)。根据一般的行文规律,介绍“common”(通常的)是为了文章接下来阐述“不通常的”内容做一个铺垫,也是为了进行鲜明的对照和对比。这是考生在解答阅读题时需要掌握的一个规律。如果考生懂得这个规律并且把第三段和第四联系起来加以阅读和理解就不难得出本文的正确选项B。考生在解题时一定要牢记平时所积累的解题技巧和方法,尤其是要注意一些规律性的解题技巧和方法。

4. 【答案】D

【考点解析】这是一道审题定位题。根据题干中的“concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began”可将本题的答案信息迅速确定在本文的尾段。本题具体的答案信息在尾段的倒数第三句。因为尾段的倒数第二句是全文的中心主旨句,所以支持全文中心主旨句的最主要证据本应在该句之前。由于本题的题干涉及“Byzantine revival began”,故本题的答案应该是强调“拜占庭帝国文化复兴开始时间”的选项D。考生在解题时一定要对段落的行文发展和结构有所把握,这样才能迅速地审题定位。

5. 【答案】C

【考点解析】这是一道段落间关系与指代词题型。题干中的“common explanation”将我们带到了本文的第三段。但是本文提到“common explanation”的目的是要讲这种“common explanation”不能完全应用到拜占庭帝国的复兴。第四段的前三句是作者对这种“common explanation”的具体态度和观点。尾段首句中的指代词“this”和“at times”对我们推导本题的正确选项C起了重要的作用。考生在解题时一定要牢记原文作者的写作意图,要十分重视段落之间的相互关系。

[参考译文]

在8—11世纪之间,拜占庭帝国出现了一次无与伦比的经济和文化复兴,这次复兴之所以引人注目是因为它出现在一次严重的内部衰落之后。8世纪时,帝国失去了它600年时所拥有领土的大约2/3。仅存的部分也受到阿拉伯人和保加利亚人的侵袭,这些国家经常威胁说要攻占首都君士坦丁堡,把拜占庭彻底消灭掉。帝国的财富和臣民大幅减少,文学艺术也实际上陷于停顿。不过,到了11世纪初期,帝国重新收回了沦陷领土的几乎一半,新的边界是安定的,其影响远及疆土之外。经济也恢复了,国库充实,文学艺术也向前发展。

把拜占庭军事、文艺以及经济上的复兴理解为同一现象的不同表现是合理的。毕竟,这三者在相当多的同家中是一同出现的。奥古斯都统治下的罗马和公元前五世纪的雅典就是古代社会最好的例证。而且,对三者之间次第出现的联系做一番考察也有助于解释历史变化的原因。

通常,对于拜占庭帝国中三者复兴的联系会这样解释:当帝国已击退敌人的进攻并反攻到敌国疆土之时,拜占庭的财富自然就会增长,从而有更多的金钱可用来投资于文化艺术事业。因此,帝国军事成就促进经济昌盛,后者又引起了文化繁荣。

毫无疑问,这种假设能够解释复兴中的一些现象。但是我们不能明确地认为军事成就一定最先出现,经济其次,文化最后。(事实上)860年左右拜占庭帝国开始收复阿拉伯人占领的失地,直到872年,和哈里发阿拉伯国家的军事对比才有利于帝国。而经济的复兴在810—830年间就已开始。文化的复兴更早,早在788年,一批有名的学者、作家就出现了,8世纪最后十年,文化复兴已达极盛,并一直延续到1453年君士坦丁堡的陷落。因此,通常所认为的军事、经济、文化复兴三者次第出现的顺序在拜占庭是完全颠倒的。实际上,拜占庭文化的复兴可能反而影响了后来的经济、军事进步。

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准考证打印日期:2015年8月17-9月10日

考试时间:2015年10月25号

截止报名日期:2015年7月10号