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十月联考英语阅读理解易错题解析(4)

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Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder.

I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose that scientific archeological expeditions and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal activities.

You might object that professionals excavate to acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply, everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong.

I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard. Even precious royal seal impressions known as melekh handles have been found in abundance — more than 4,000 examples so far.

The basements of museums are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be maintained on the computer. A purchaser could even be required to agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.

It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. But the demand for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked pot when another was available whose provenance was known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional archaeologist who excavated it?

1. The primary purpose of the text is to propose

[A] an alternative to museum display of artifacts.

[B] a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession.

[C] a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value from those that have no such value.

[D] the governmental regulation of archaeological sites.

2. Which of the following is mentioned in the text as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements?

[A] Museum officials rarely allow scholars access to such artifacts.

[B] Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage.

[C] Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become separated from each other.

[D] Such artifacts’ often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage.

3. The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (line 2, paragraph 4) to emphasize which of the following points?

[A] Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable, although more rare, than royal seal impressions.

[B] Artifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.

[C] Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.

[D] Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large quantities of salable artifacts.

4. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?

[A] Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.

[B] The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.

[C] Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.

[D] Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.

5. The author anticipates which of the following initial denials of his proposal?

[A] Museum officials will become unwilling to store artifacts.

[B] An oversupply of salable artifacts will result and the demand for them will fall.

[C] Artifacts that would have been displayed in public places will be sold to private collectors.

[D] Illegal excavators will have an even larger supply of artifacts for resale.

[答案与考点解析]

1. 【答案】B

【考点解析】这是一道中心主旨题。本文的中心主旨句在第二段的第一、二句。从这两句话中我们可以推断出本题的正确选项是B。考生在破解此类题型时一定要首先识别出全文的中心主旨句。

2. 【答案】D

【考点解析】本题是一道细节推导题。根据本题题干中的“museum basements”可将本题的答案信息迅速确定在第五段首句。通过阅读和理解第五段的首句和第二句,尤其是第二句,我们可推导出本题的正确选项应该是D。考生在解题时一定要善于审题定位,并且要善于联系上下句所陈述的内容。

3. 【答案】C

【考点解析】这是一道句间关系题。本题题干已将本题的答案信息来源确定在第四段第二句,通过仔细阅读第四段的三句话,并结合第三段结尾的四句话,我们可以推断出涉及“价值”、“数量大”等内容的选项C应该成为本题的正确选项。考生在解题时应十分重视句子之间的相互关系,并且要深入理解和归纳原文所谈论的实质内容。

4. 【答案】A

【考点解析】这是一道审题定位题。本题题干并没有明确暗示本题的答案信息来源在原文的位置。这是一道较难的试题。但是敏感的考生会根据题干中的“the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation”将本的答案信息来源确定在尾段,因为尾段的第一句含有“artifacts were sold on the open market”。尾段的第二句就是题干中所涉及的“effect”。尾段的最后一句就是本题要求考生所寻找出的“assumptions”。可见本题的正确选项应该是强调“authenticated”(被证实,被鉴定的)一词的选项A。考生在解题时一定要善于迅速审题定位,更要善于归纳和推导原文的内容。

5. 【答案】C

【考点解析】本题是一道细节推导题。本题题干中的“denials”一词把本题的答案信息来源确定在第四段的首句,因为该句中包含“object”(反对,否定)一词。通过仔细阅读第四段的首句,以及其扩展句(第四段的第二句),我们可以推导出本题的正确选项是C。考生在解题时一定要注意原文的细节以及句子之间的关系。

[参考译文]

考古学作为一门专业面临两个主要问题。首先,它是穷穷行业中最穷的。只有微不足道的一些资金用来发掘,而可供出版研究成果和保护已发掘遗址的资金就更为可怜。可是考古学家们每天是在和无价之宝打交道。第二,有非法盗掘现象,造成了有收藏价值的文物流入出高价者手中。

我的一个或许不合道德的想法,却可以一举为考古发现提供资金和减少非法盗掘现象,我建议,科学考古队或政府部门可以公开出售发掘的文物。这种出售将为考古发掘、文物保存以及成果出版提供充足的资金。同时,还能斩断非法挖掘者对市场的垄断,从而消减这一非法行当对人们的诱惑力。

你或许会提出反对:职业考古是为了求知,而不是赚钱。而且,古代文物是全人类文化遗产的一部分,应该留给所有的人来欣赏,而不是要给出高价的人。这我同意。应该卖那些没有独特的艺术、科学价值的文物。不过,你可能会回应说,所有从地里出土的文物都是有科学价值的。这就是我们的不合之处了。理论上说,你认为所有文物都有潜在的科学价值是正确的,实际上,你是错的。

我这么说指的是成千上万的古代陶器、灯具之类,它们基本上是同一个模子的复制品。塞浦路斯的一次小型发掘中,考古学家新近发现了一个庭院中有2000件实际上无法区分的小水罐。就是很珍贵的王室御玺的护柄也很多见——多于4000件。

博物馆储存室绝对不够放置那些将来还会发现的大量文物。甚至没有足够的钱把它们分门别类;结果,它们常会不易查找,难以再让人接触,好像从不曾被发掘出来。实际上,在计算机的帮助下,已售出的文物比藏在博物馆拥挤不堪的储存室中的反而更容易查找到。出售之前,每样文物可被拍照,买主的资料输入计算机。如果已被卖的文物需要用于科学目的,还可以要求买主将它们归还。

如果设想公开出售文物后,非法开掘会停止,那是不切实际。但是,对来历不明的产品的需求将下降。如果有一件来源清晰,并被发现它的专业考古学家用地层分析法确定年代的文物存在,谁还会去买一个毫无标志的水罐呢?

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准考证打印日期:2015年8月17-9月10日

考试时间:2015年10月25号

截止报名日期:2015年7月10号