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2015年在职研究生联考英语章节过关:阅读理解一

2015-08-27 15:20:49 信息来源:www.ky100.cn 点击: 【字体:

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  Most of the plans and programs for diminishing crime by means of comprehensive community organization have made prevention their major purpose.However, the underlying concepts on which such programs are based suffer from inconsistency(不一致,矛盾)and confusion.It would be inaccurate to speak as if concise, clear, and explicit models for crime prevention existed especially since writing and discussion on the subject often have been more ideological than scientific.

  One conception heavily weighted with ideology is the argument that crime can be prevented by massive or total programs of social and economic improvement directed at the root causes of crime in society as a whole.The assumption is that eliminating harmful social conditions such as poverty, malnutrition y disease, poor housing, family disorganization, unemployment, and racial discrimination will make crime disappear.Crime is traced to a pathological (病态的) or broken social structure, and only a thorough renovation or replacement of that structure will usher in a crimeless society.This conception has revolutionary implications going back to older socialist beliefs that poverty or class exploitation causes crime.Among the methods it advocates to solve social problems is the activation of some forms of popular democracy.

  Another form of social improvement more sophisticated in conception has been loosely designated as “opportunity theory”.This conception holds that crime results from psychic pressures in individuals who are culturally indoctrinated (灌输) with achievement values and yet have no opportunity for upward mobility because of their unfortunate position in a rigid social structure.Those so disadvantaged are primarily youths in the lower socio-economic strata.Amelioration(改善)inspired by opportunity theory employs vaguely martial imagery:it speaks of the“mobilization”of community resources to make“war”on poverty. -

  Broad—scale programs of social and cultural improvement may be desirable or necessary at times, but since they fail to explain why some poverty·stricken youths turn to crime while others do not, their efficacy(功效)in eradicating and preventing crime is questionable at best.So far only one country, the Soviet Union, has conducted a large-scale revolutionary experiment in social improvement, and the results have not been affirmative:Soviet authorities are still plagued by juvenile crime.This experiment suggests that social improvement is too scattered in its impact to be an effective means of crime prevention.

  1.The writer points out that writing and discussion on crime prevention __________.

  A.are not based on facts and not systematic

  B.involve profound thinking

  C.are ideological and scientific

  D.are not explicitly expressed

  2.Some people argue that crime is mainly caused by _______.

  A.discrimination B.family disorganization

  C.harmful social conditions D.class exploitation

  3.According to“opportunity theory”,crime occurs because ________.

  A.1ack of chance for moving upward in society causes mental pressure on people

  B.people are dissatisfied with their present socio-economic position

  C.young people have been taught to be successful in their life

  D.young people who lack the opportunity to move upward make“war”on poverty.

  4.The word“eradicating”(Line 3, Last Para.)is closest in meaning to ______.

  A.combating B.eliminating

  C.struggling D.reducing

  5.This passage is mainly about _________.

  A.causes of crime B.social conditions and crime

  C.psychic pressures and crime D.crime prevention

  参考答案:

  1-5 A C A B D

(编辑:考翼网-在职研究生)

距考试时间还有

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准考证打印日期:2015年8月17-9月10日

考试时间:2015年10月25号

截止报名日期:2015年7月10号