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考翼网在职研究生MBA硕士易错题(3)

2015-06-12 10:16:04 信息来源:www.ky100.cn 点击: 【字体:
一、阅读理解

Pageants

Pageants are usually conceived on a fairly large scale, often under the auspices of some local or civic authority or at any rate in connection with local groups of some kind. This sometimes means that there is an allocation of funds available for the purpose of mounting the production, though unfortunately this will usually be found to be on the meager side and much ingenuity will have to be used to stretch it so that all performers can be adequately clothed.

Most pageants have a historical flavour as they usually come about through the celebration of the anniversary of some event of historic importance, or the life or death of some local worthy. Research among archives and books in the public library will probably prove very useful and produce some workable ideas which will give the production an especially local flavour. From the first economy will have to be practiced because there are usually a great number of people to dress. Leading characters can be considered individually in the same way as when designing for a play; but the main body of the performers will need to be planned in groups and the massed effect must be always borne in mind.

Many pageants take place in daylight in the open air. This is an entirely different problem from designing costumes which are going to be looked at under artificial lighting; for one thing, scenes viewed in the daylight are subject to many more distractions. No longer is everything around cut out by the surrounding darkness, but instead it is very easy to be aware of disturbing movement in the audience of behind the performers. Very theatrically conceived clothes do not always look their best when seen in a daylight setting of trees, verdant lawns and old ivy-covered walls; the same goes for costumes being worn in front of the mellow colors of stately homes. The location needs to be studied and then a decision can be made as to what kinds of colors and textures will harmonize best with the surroundings and conditions and then to carry this out as far as possible on the funds available.

If money is available to dress the performers without recourse to their own help in the provision of items, it is best to arrange for all the cutting and pinning together of the costumes to be done by one or two experienced people than to be given out to the groups and individuals for completion. When there is little or no money at all, the garments need to be reduced to the basic necessities. Cloaks and shawls become invaluable, sheets and large bath towels and bath sheets are admirable for draping. Unwanted curtains and bed spreads can be cut to make tunics, robes and skirts. These are particularly valuable if they are of heavy fabrics such as velvet or chenille.

Colors should be massed together so that there are contrasting groups of dark and light, this will be found to help the visual result substantially. Crowds of people gathered together in a jumble of colors will be ground to look quite purposeless and will lack dramatic impact.

The use of numbers of identical head-dresses, however simply made, are always effective when working with groups. If these are made of cardboard and painted boldly the cost can be almost negligible. Helmets, hats and plumes will all make quite a show even if the costumes are only blandest or sheets cleverly draped. The same can be said of the use of banners, shields and poles with stiff pennants and garlands—anything which will help to have a unifying effect. Any kind of eye-catching device will always go with a flourish and add excitement to the scenes.

1. The main idea of this passage is

[A]. Pageants.

[B]. Costumes on the stage.

[C]. Costumes for pageants.

[D]. How to arrange a pageant.

2. It can be inferred that the most important factor in costume design is

[A]. money.

[B]. color.

[C]. harmony

[D]. texture

3. Why will much ingenuity have to be required in costume design?

[A]. Because pageants take place in daylight in the open air.

[B]. Because different characters require different costumes.

[C]. Because the colors and textures must be in harmony with the setting.

[D]. Because an allocation of the funds available is usually rather small.

4. Why do most pageants have a historical flavour?

[A]. Because most pageants take place for celebration.

[B]. Many pageants take place for amusement.

[C]. A lot of pageants take place for religion.

[D]. Because pageants usually take place for competition.

Vocabulary

1. conceive 设想,想象

to be conceived 设想好的,构思好的

2. under the auspices of 在……的主办下

3. meager 贫乏的,不足的

4. mount 登上,制作,上演

5. flavour 风味,风格,情趣

6. archive(s) 档案(馆)

7. distraction 使人分心的事

8. ivy 常春藤

9. mellow 柔和的

10. recourse (to) 依赖,求助于

11. drape 覆盖,披上

12. invaluable 无价的,非常贵重的

13. tunic (古时)长达膝盖的外衣,穿在盔甲上的战袍

14. chenille 绳绒绒(织品)

15. jumble 混乱,搞乱

16. pennant 细长三角旗

17. garland 花环,花冠

难句译注

1. This sometimes means that there is an allocation of funds available for the purpose of mounting the production, though unfortunately this will usually be found to be on the meager side and much ingenuity will have to be used to stretch it so that all performers can be adequately clothed.

[结构简析] 复合结构。That是主句的宾语从句,从句后再有从句。

[参考译文] 这种情况,有时就表示有一个可用于演出目的资金配额。遗憾的是配额一般都少而不足,就得动用非常之才能细细的使用金额,使所有的演员都能穿上合适的戏装。

2. Most pageants have a historical flavour as they usually come about through the celebration of the anniversary of some event of historic importance, or the life or death of some local worthy.

[结构简析] 主从句

[参考译文] 大多数露天演出都带有历史情调,因为这些戏一般是通过庆祝某个重大的历史事件,或庆祝当地某个值得纪念的人诞辰或逝世周年而产生的。

3. This is an entirely different problem from designing costumes which are going to be looked at under artificial lighting; for one thing, scenes viewed in the daylight are subject to many more distractions. No longer is everything around cut out by the surrounding darkness, but instead it is very easy to be aware of disturbing movement in the audience of behind the performers.

[结构简析] 复合结构:主句this is后有定语从句,which修饰costumes。从句中又套从句。

[参考译文] 这和人为灯光下看的设计服装完全不一样。首先,白天看到幕景易于受许多因素影响,不再能用一片漆黑的环境把周围的一切隔开,而是相反,演员后和观众中有点纷乱的动作,很容易看到。

4. Very theatrically conceived clothes do not always look their best when seen in a daylight setting of trees, verdant lawns and old ivy-covered walls; the same goes for costumes being worn in front of the mellow colors of stately homes.

[结构简析] 并列句,中用分号隔开。第一句中有when seen 连词+过去分词,实质起从句作用。第二句是主从句。

[参考译文] 设计出的非常具有戏剧性效果的服装,在光天化日,有树木,有绿茵茵的草地,又有爬满常春藤的古老围墙的背景下,经常看起来是不起眼:在堂皇的住宅四周一片和色调前,所穿的服装效果同样不太好。

5. If money is available to dress the performers without recourse to their own help in the provision of items, it is best to arrange for all the cutting and pinning together of the costumes to be done by one or two experienced people than to be given out to the groups and individuals for completion.

[结构简析] 条件句,主句为逻辑主句,注意中间两个被动不定式。To be done by, than to be given out, 这里的than起连词作用。

[参考译文] 如果有钱可以为演员着装而不用求助自己供应种种物件,那么最好把所有的戏装的裁减和缝制交给一,两个有经验人去干,而不是让群体演员和单个演员去完成。

写作方法与文章大意

文章论述露天演出的服装问题,由于露天演出不同于室内,剧院内演出,要从各个方面考虑服装问题,才能获得应有的舞台效果。作者从资金多少,地方色彩,露天,白天,颜色搭配等方面来论述服装。写法多种,有因果,对比,举例等。

考翼网在职研究生答案详解

1. C. 露天演出的服装。第一段末尾已经点明,“一般认为露天演出规模宏大,常常是由某个地方或当局(民政局主办赞助),或总是和某个地方集团有关。这意味着有用于演出目的资金配额,遗憾的是配额一般很少,必须动用非常的才能,细细的使用资金,所有演员才能窗上恰当的服装。”其他各段各有重点,但都是服务于剧装这一中心。

A. 露天演出。 B. 舞台剧装(包括剧场)。 D. 如何安排露天演出;涉及面或大或小,不适合。

2. C. 和谐。服装设计中最重要的因素是和谐。这一点在几段中都提到,第二段最后一句“演员的主题必须以群体设计,头脑中必须经常记住群体效果。”第三段最后一句“必须研究演出的地理位置,决出什么样的颜色和织物,能和环境,条件,达到最完美和谐。”第五段专讲颜色搭配,“应当从总体考虑颜色,这样才有亮和暗的群体对比,帮助产生实感的视觉效果,一群穿着杂七杂八颜色服装的演员聚集在一起看起来乱哄哄。缺乏戏剧效果。”这也是和谐之要求。

A. 钱。钱要考虑。出前两段外,第三段最后一句,讲完和谐后,也提到“尽可能以能到手的资金加以实现这决定。”第四段中“在钱很少或是没有钱的情况下,服装得降到基本需要”,下面就讲利用被单,浴巾,窗帘做服装,所以钱在服装设计中很重要,但不能列为最重要因素,有钱没有钱都得以服装协调为主。 B. 颜色。

D. 织品。同样都的服从和谐这一前提。

3. D. 因为能得到资金的配额都很少。第一段最后一句话,见第一题译注。

A. 因为在光天化日下演出。 B. 因为不同演员要求不同服装。 C. 颜色和织物必须和布景谐调。这些只是考虑的因素。见上面译文。

4. A. 因为大多数露天演出都是为纪念庆祝。第二段第一句“露天演出一般都是某个具有历史意义事件,或者当地某个值得纪念的人物的诞辰和逝世周年,所以大多数露天演出都具有历史纪念色彩。”

B. 许多露天演出是为了娱乐。 C. 许多露天演出是为了宗教。 D. 因为露天演出一般是参与竞赛。三项都不对。

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